PARIS — Strolling dwelling one evening a number of years in the past in a suburb of Paris, Raphaël Marre was horrified to see a bunch of migrants and asylum seekers sleeping on the street outside his home.

Why wasn’t the federal government housing them? he questioned. After witnessing the identical scene for a number of weeks, he and his spouse determined to do it themselves, signing up with a nonprofit that hyperlinks migrants with folks within the Paris area prepared to open up their properties for a couple of nights.

“That was a triggering second,” Mr. Marre mentioned. “We thought, ‘This may’t be occurring, we have now to do one thing.’”

5 years after a migrant disaster that convulsed Europe, France remains to be struggling to accommodate the hundreds of people that have utilized for asylum in France. And Mr. Barre remains to be welcoming them into his dwelling.

The federal government acknowledges that it has been gradual to seek out lodging for asylum seekers, and says that it plans so as to add extra locations within the coming 12 months. However teams like Utopia 56, the nonprofit that Mr. Marre signed up with, say that the added lodging isn’t sufficient and that the federal government is dragging its heels on offering housing to discourage extra folks from coming to France at a time when anti-immigrant sentiment is rising.

“France desires to stigmatize this inhabitants by saying, ‘You don’t have anything to do right here, you aren’t refugees,’” mentioned Yann Manzi, a founding father of Utopia 56. “That is purposely finished. It’s not that we don’t have room however it’s that we wish to give a transparent message: ‘Don’t come anymore.’”

The federal government, for its half, says its doing its finest in a troublesome state of affairs. Didier Leschi, the director of the French Workplace of Immigration and Integration, mentioned that France was one of many few European nations to supply emergency lodging to everybody with out circumstances and that “there have by no means been as many asylum seekers in France as there are in the present day.”

Mr. Leschi mentioned that solely 55 % of the 138,000 present asylum candidates have been in state-funded housing. The federal government additionally funds one other housing program that’s open to all, with none circumstances or residency necessities, however demand, once more, far exceeds provide.

Authorities housing for migrants varies vastly throughout the European Union. Germany manages to deal with most with a mixture of sponsored leases and providing areas in state-run shelters. Italy gives restricted public and momentary housing asylum for tens of hundreds of seekers, however doesn’t present emergency lodging to migrants who’ve been refused asylum.

In France, lots of the migrants who can’t discover a place to remain within the Paris space flock to the sq. in entrance of the Hôtel de Ville, town corridor, the place volunteers for Utopia 56 assist them discover a momentary shelter.

A household from the Ivory Coast — Losseni Sanogo; his spouse, Assata; and their daughter, Korotoum — have been in luck on a current night, if just for a short time. They have been going to be linked with Mr. Marre.

“We’ll offer you lodging,” Clotilde Fournial, a Utopia 56 volunteer, instructed the household, who had spent the previous few nights sleeping on the ground of a practice station. “However it’s going to solely be for tonight.”

Lower than two hours later, the household was on its technique to the southeast Paris suburb of Alfortville to stick with Mr. Marre.

Utopia 56’s personal housing initiative started in 2018, when France, and far of Europe, was going through a large influx of migrants from the Middle East and Africa, pushed from their properties by warfare and financial deprivation.

The numbers of migrants coming to Europe has slowed up to now 12 months, however this system remains to be in place, partly due to the federal government’s ever-growing backlog of asylum instances.

Camille Le Coz, a coverage analyst on the Migration Coverage Institute, mentioned a scarcity of lodging was compounded by the big variety of folks that wanted assist — some with prolonged asylum processes, others with nowhere else to go as soon as their instances have been resolved, and people who have been denied asylum and refuse to depart.

In December, the federal government introduced an initiative that might create 4,500 new areas in 2021. Nevertheless, it’s “nonetheless removed from sufficient to fulfill the wants,” mentioned Ms. Le Coz.

France’s wrestle to accommodate migrants and asylum seekers has grow to be significantly conspicuous in the streets of the Paris region. In what has grow to be a seemingly unending cycle, the police regularly clear out hundreds of migrants and raze their tents and shacks, typically providing them no various however to maneuver elsewhere.

Utopia 56 depends on a community of volunteers, personal residents, parishes and personal firms which have sheltered almost 3,000 folks through the pandemic.

Xavier Lachaume, 31, and his spouse have hosted eight households of their residence in Saint-Denis, a northern Paris suburb, since January. For now, guests keep of their spare bed room for a few nights, which they plan to show right into a room for a child they count on in coming months.

For Mr. Lachaume, who works for the economic system ministry, the trouble by personal residents is a short-term answer for a long-lasting disaster.

“We shouldn’t have to do that, it ought to be the state,” mentioned Mr. Lachaume.

France registered almost 82,000 asylum applications in 2020, based on Eurostat, Europe’s statistics company. First-time candidates declined greater than 40 % from 2019, a drop partly attributed to the coronavirus. However Mr. Manzi predicts one other surge as soon as the pandemic passes.

President Emmanuel Macron instructed Brut, a web based information website, in December that “the slowness of our procedures implies that” asylum seekers “can certainly discover themselves for weeks and months” with out correct lodging.

The political debate round migrants has additionally been envenomed by safety considerations in recent times, with right-wing politicians and conservative news media increasingly drawing a link between illegal migration and terrorism. Mr. Macron’s authorities has adopted a tougher approach on immigration, hoping that lures voters away from the far proper.

Mr. Sanogo mentioned he had arrived in France in 2016 after fleeing Ivory Coast, citing persevering with turmoil stemming from the 2011 civil war that tore apart the country, and has lived in a collection of employees’ hostels, earning money off the books as a building employee. His spouse and their 9-year-old daughter joined him final month, however they weren’t allowed to remain in his hostel, forcing them to sleep within the Gare de Lyon practice station in Paris.

Mr. Sanogo, 44, mentioned his asylum software when he arrived in 2016 had been rejected as a result of he didn’t make the request in Italy, the place he first arrived in Europe, as he was imagined to do underneath E.U. guidelines. However he mentioned he had an appointment with a lawyer to make a brand new software in France, this time together with his household.

As he boarded the Metro together with his household to go to their hosts, Mr. Sanogo recounted how he had made his away from Ivory Coast to Libya, have been he mentioned he was overwhelmed up and robbed by traffickers, and finally made it to Italy after a dangerous boat journey throughout the Mediterranean.

Mr. Sanogo appeared grateful for Mr. Marre’s hospitality, however conscious that it was just for an evening, mentioned he had hidden a bag full of garments and sheets on the outskirts of Paris.

“If we have now to sleep exterior,” he mentioned.